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How To Become A Lawyer In Canada
If you want to know how to become a lawyer in Canada the first thing to note is that becoming a lawyer in
Canada is actually governed by each province separately.
However, all of the provinces – apart from Quebec – operate on broadly similar ways as they all use Common Law. The province of Quebec uses Civil Law instead, and so the process is slightly different.
This means you will have to opt for either studying Civil Law in Quebec or a Common Law degree program somewhere else in Canada.
Being a lawyer in Canada – and indeed any other country for that matter – is a fulfilling role to play in society, not to mention being very financially rewarding.
Working as a lawyer in Canada is a great career and lifestyle decision – here is a table showing the salaries of lawyers* in this lovely country.
Steps to becoming a lawyer in Canada
Here's a guide to the various stages that students need to undertake to become a lawyer in Canada.
Pre-law undergraduate degree
Attending law school in Canada requires the student to already have an undergraduate degree, and law schools – such as the University of Toronto – say that no one subject is better than any other. Students must complete the undergraduate degree before applying to law school.
Law School Admissions Test (LSAT)
The LSAT is the method of entry into Law School across the US and Canada, and is administered by the Law School Admission Council. It runs tests around the world and is held about four times a year. There are a number of organisations that run preparation courses to take the exam, such as Oxford Seminars, who hold courses across Canada, or Kaplan who hold courses around the world.
Complete law degree
After successfully passing the LSAT, students then need to attend one of the 17 Common Law Schools in Canada and undertake the three year JD program. This process is slightly different if they wish to practice in Quebec, as in this case they need to complete a Civil Law course at a law school in Quebec.
Foreign-trained lawyers – NCA examination
Those students or lawyers who hold a law degree from another country must gain a Certificate of Qualification to show that they have the necessary understanding to go on to the Bar Examination in Canada. To begin with, they must pass the exams held by National Committee on Accreditation (NCA) – which is run by the Federation of Law Societies in Canada – to show that they have the necessary skills and knowledge to become lawyers in Canada. These exams are held around four times a year, and students can either study by themselves in preparation for the exams or take a course in NCA examination preparation run by one of the law schools in Canada.
The courses cover the five mandatory subject areas in the exam of Foundations of Canadian Professional Responsibility, Canadian Law, Canadian Constitutional Law, Canadian Criminal Law and Canadian Administrative Law. Students may have to demonstrate knowledge of Contract Law, Business Organisations, Property Law and Torts through courses undertaken in Canada or previously to moving to Canada. Once internationally trained students have passed the NCA exam they can then move onto working on the provincial Bar Admissions Course and Articling in the province they wish to live and work in.
Provincial Bar Admission Course & Articling
Students go on to complete their provincial Bar Admissions Course and a period of 10 months to a year of Articling. This is where the student works with supervision from a member of the provincial Bar as a clerk in a law firm, courtroom or legal department. Again this is slightly different if the student wishes to practice in Quebec, then the student will have undergone a Civil Law JD program and go on to spend a term attending Bar School. After this, the student completes the Stage and this is the Civil Law equivalent of Articling.
Once a student has passed the Bar Exam in their province they are free to practice as a lawyer. Lawyers in Canada can call themselves Barristers or Solicitors and tend to define their practice with the title they choose. Barristers appear in court or in mediation and solicitors do not appear in court but involves legal issues such as contracts and wills.
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